A Research Platform for Singapore

Design for Autonomous Mobility

Overview

DAM, with its team of Industrial Designers, has the role to design Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) for public transport and their related infrastructure (e.g., stations) for greater comfort and a positive travel experience for users. The designed concepts have to fulfil two main requirements: promote user acceptance and facilitate the operation of autonomously driven vehicles for public transport.

Beyond the consideration of the Universal Design principles, DAM investigates the advantages of new tools like Virtual Reality (VR) and pedestrian simulations that are not yet widely used within the designer community.

Furthermore, empirical research is conducted to define the Human Factors that need to be taken into consideration for design. These Human Factors help for the definition of Personas (i.e., goal-oriented user profiles) that guarantee that user needs and expectations are considered throughout the design process of AVs integrated to public transport. The outputs of the research are design concepts for AVs and infrastructure as well as novel methodologies for design.

Research

Industrial Design for AVs

The Industrial Designers of DAM have the role to design the DART vehicle to be of greater comfort and a positive travel experience for users than current public transport services. Following topics are under investigation:

  • Human Machine Interfaces for AVs
  • Crowd simulation tool for design of vehicle interior layout
  • Station retrofitting for AVs including guidance / wayfinding system
  • Secondary use of AVs for freight, postal delivery or shuttle services

DART module - exterior (source: TUMCREATE)

DART module - interior overview (source: TUMCREATE)

 

Virtual Research Lab

Building up experimental setups in real-life conditions to test the vehicles and mobility concepts would be a complex endeavour: It would be costly in terms of both money and time, and could be unsafe for potential test persons. Therefore, with the help of Virtual Reality (VR), alternative research methods are investigated by DAM to run experiments in a reliable way that keeps costs and time spent to a minimum while maximizing safety for test persons.

Industrial Designers consider Virtual Reality as a tool for:

  • Problem identification in VR
  • Ideation workshops in VR with experts’ immersion
  • Usability Testing in VR with physiological sensors
  • Presentation of design concepts in VR and immersive experience

Possible set-up for experiment within VR (source: TUMCREATE)

Human Factors in Design

Public acceptance and adoption are major challenges to overcome with the introduction of DART. Research into user needs, and desires is part of the human-centric design approach taken by DAM. Results of this Work Package inform the design of DART stations, vehicles and human-machine interfaces (HMI).

Human Factors and Personas are defined for public transport in Singapore and following studies are on-going:

  • Mobility Journeys in Singapore
  • Research on Attitude to AVs
  • Human-centred Impact Assessment
  • Case study: Virtual Companion for public transport

Mobility Journeys in Singapore (source: TUMCREATE)

Publications

[13]S. Stadler, H. Cornet, and F. Frenkler, “Towards user acceptance of autonomous vehicles: a virtual reality study on human-machine interfaces,” 2019, accepted.
 
@article{IJTMDAM2019,
title={Towards User Acceptance of Autonomous Vehicles: A Virtual reality Study on Human-machine Interfaces},
author={Stadler, Sebastian and Cornet, Henriette and Frenkler, Fritz},
booktitle={International Journal of Technology Marketing},
year={2019},
}
[12]P. Kong, C. Landesvatter, H. Cornet, and F. Frenkler, “Beyond operational improvement: a qualitative study on user preferences for public transport in singapore,” Oct. 2019.
 
@misc{ITSWCDAM2019,
title={Beyond Operational Improvement: A Qualitative Study on User Preferences for Public Transport in Singapore},
author={Kong, Penny and Landesvatter, Carolin and Cornet, Henriette and Frenkler, Fritz},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 26th ITS World Congress},
year={2019},
month=oct,
location={Singapore},
}
[11]P. Kong, F. Vallet, O. Al Maghraoui, H. Cornet, and F. Frenkler, “Seeking emotions in mobility experience elicitation: a Singapore-France comparison,” in Proceedings of the International Association of Societies of Design Research Conference 2019 (IASDR 2019), Manchester, United Kingdom, Sep. 2019, in press.
 
@inproceedings{IASDRDAM2019,
title={Seeking Emotions in Mobility Experience Elicitation: A {Singapore}-{France} Comparison},
author={Kong, Penny and Vallet, Flore and Al Maghraoui, Ouail and Cornet, Henriette and Frenkler, Fritz},
booktitle={Proceedings of the International Association of Societies of Design Research Conference 2019 (IASDR 2019)},
year={2019},
month=sep,
location={Manchester, United Kingdom},
}
[10]B. Su, P. Andelfinger, D. Eckhoff, H. Cornet, G. Marinkovic, C. Wentong, and A. Knoll, “An agent-based model for evaluating the boarding and alighting efficiency of autonomous public transport vehicles,” in Computational Science – ICCS 2019, J. e. a. Rodrigues, Ed., Springer International Publishing, Jun. 2019, pp. 534-547, ISBN: 978-3-030-22734-0.
 
@inproceedings{ICCSDAM2019,
title={An Agent-based Model for Evaluating the Boarding and Alighting Efficiency of Autonomous Public Transport Vehicles},
author={Su, Boyi and Andelfinger, Philipp and Eckhoff, David and Cornet, Henriette and Marinkovic, Goran and Wentong, Cai and Knoll, Alois},
booktitle={Computational Science -- ICCS 2019},
publisher={Springer International Publishing},
editor={Rodrigues, Jo et al.},
pages={534-547},
month=jun,
year={2019},
isbn={978-3-030-22734-0},
}
[9]S. Stadler, H. Cornet, D. Huang, and F. Frenkler, “Designing tomorrow's human-machine interfaces in autonomous vehicles: an exploratory study in virtual reality,” in Proceedings of the 5th International AR & VR Conference (ARVR 2019), Munich, Germany, Jun. 2019, in press.
 
@inproceedings{ARVRDAM2019,
title={Designing Tomorrow's Human-machine Interfaces in Autonomous Vehicles: An Exploratory Study in Virtual Reality},
author={Stadler, Sebastian and Cornet, Henriette and Huang, Danqing and Frenkler, Fritz},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 5th International AR \& VR Conference (ARVR 2019)},
year={2019},
month=jun,
location={Munich, Germany},
}
[8]H. Cornet, P. Kong, F. Vallet, A. Lane, and Y. L. Theng, “Designing sustainable mobility for people at risk of social isolation – two cultural perspectives from Singapore and France,” in Designing Sustainability for All. Proceedings of the 3rd LeNS World Distributed Conference. Volume 2, Beijing, China: Ediziono POLI.design, Apr. 2019, ISBN: 978-88-95651-26-2.
 
@inproceedings{LeNSDAM2019,
title={Designing Sustainable Mobility for People at Risk of Social Isolation -- Two Cultural Perspectives from {Singapore} and {France}},
author={Cornet, Henriette and Kong, Penny and Vallet, Flore and Lane, Anna and Theng, Yin Leng},
booktitle={Designing Sustainability for All. Proceedings of the 3rd LeNS World Distributed Conference. Volume 2},
year={2019},
month=apr,
location={Beijing, China},
publisher={Ediziono POLI.design},
isbn={978-88-95651-26-2}
}
[7]S. Stadler, H. Cornet, and F. Frenkler, “A study in virtual reality on (non-)gamers' attitudes and behaviors,” in Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces, Osaka, Japan: IEEE, Mar. 2019, DOI: 10.1109/VR.2019.8797750.
 
@inproceedings{IEEEVRDAM2019,
title={A Study in Virtual Reality on (Non\hyp)Gamers' Attitudes and Behaviors},
author={Stadler, Sebastian and Cornet, Henriette and Frenkler, Fritz},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces},
year={2019},
month=mar,
location={Osaka, Japan},
publisher={IEEE},
doi={10.1109/VR.2019.8797750}
}
[6]P. Kong, H. Cornet, and F. Frenkler, “Personas and emotional design for public service robots: a case study with autonomous vehicles in public transportation,” in Proceedings of the CW 2018: 2018 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW), Singapore: IEEE, Oct. 2018, DOI: 10.1109/CW.2018.00058.
 
@inproceedings{CWDAM2018,
title={Personas and Emotional Design for Public Service Robots: A Case Study with Autonomous Vehicles in Public Transportation},
author={Kong, Penny and Cornet, Henriette and Frenkler, Fritz},
booktitle={Proceedings of the CW 2018: 2018 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW)},
year={2018},
month=oct,
location={Singapore},
publisher={IEEE},
doi={10.1109/CW.2018.00058}
}
[5]S. Stadler and H. Cornet, “Virtual design – systematic integration of virtual reality into the design process,” Jun. 2018.
 
@misc{DRSDAM2018,
author={Stadler, Sebastian and Cornet, Henriette},
title={Virtual Design -- Systematic Integration of Virtual Reality into the Design Process},
booktitle={Instant Journal -- PhD by Design Satellite Session at the Design Research Society Conference 2018 (DRS 2018)},
month=jun,
year={2018},
location={Limerick, Ireland},
publisher={phdbydesign},
issn={2396-8478},
}
[4]S. Stadler, H. Cornet, T. Theoto, and F. Frenkler, “A tool, not a toy: using virtual reality to evaluate the communication between autonomous vehicles and pedestrians,” in Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality. The Power of AR and VR for Business, Springer International Publishing, 2018, pp. 203–216, ISBN: 978-3-030-06246-0.
 
@inproceedings{ARVRDAM2018,
title={A Tool, not a Toy: Using Virtual Reality to Evaluate the Communication between Autonomous Vehicles and Pedestrians},
author={Stadler, Sebastian and Cornet, Henriette and Theoto, Tatiana and Frenkler, Fritz},
booktitle={Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality. The Power of AR and VR for Business},
year={2018},
pages={203--216},
publisher={Springer International Publishing},
isbn={978-3-030-06246-0}
}
[3]H. Cornet, S. Stadler, P. Kong, G. Marinkovic, P. M. Sathikh, and F. Frenkler, “User-centred design of autonomous mobility for public transportation in Singapore,” in Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference on Mobility and Transport Urban Mobility – Shaping the Future Together (mobil.TUM 2018), Munich, Germany, Jun. 2018, in press.
 
@inproceedings{mobilTUMDAM2018,
title={User-centred Design of Autonomous Mobility for Public Transportation in {Singapore}},
author={Cornet, Henriette and Stadler, Sebastian and Kong, Penny and Marinkovic, Goran and Sathikh, Peer Mohideen and Frenkler, Fritz},
booktitle={Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference on Mobility and Transport Urban Mobility -- Shaping the Future Together (mobil.TUM 2018)},
year={2018},
month=jun,
location={Munich, Germany},
}
[2]A. Ongel, H. Cornet, P. Kong, R. Khoo, T. Liu, and M. Kloeppel, “Public transport service quality improvement using universal design standards and advanced vehicle technologies,” in Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, Singapore, Mar. 2018, pp. 207–212, ISBN: 978-1-5386-6329-5.
 
@inproceedings{AOIMVS2017,
title={Public Transport Service Quality Improvement Using Universal Design Standards and Advanced Vehicle Technologies},
author={Ongel, Aybike and Cornet, Henriette and Kong, Penny and Khoo, Raymond and Liu, Tao and Kloeppel, Manfred},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems},
year={2018},
month=mar,
pages={207--212},
location={Singapore},
isbn={978-1-5386-6329-5}
}
[1]S. Stadler, “Virtual reality environments for presentation, elaboration and evaluation of autonomous vehicles for public transportation in Singapore,” in Proceedings of the 1st TUM Research Alumni Conference: Living and Mobility in Smart Cities, Technische Universität München, Ed., Singapore: TUM.University Press, Aug. 2017, DOI: 10.14459/2017md1429192.
 
@inproceedings{TUMalumniDAM2017,
title={Virtual Reality Environments for Presentation, Elaboration and Evaluation of Autonomous Vehicles for Public Transportation in {Singapore}},
author={Stadler, Sebastian},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 1st TUM Research Alumni Conference: Living and Mobility in Smart Cities},
year={2017},
month=aug,
location={Singapore},
editor={{Technische Universit{\"a}t M{\"u}nchen}},
publisher={TUM.University Press},
doi={10.14459/2017md1429192}
}

Other Output

[3]P. Kong, A. Gill, H. Cornet, and F. Frenkler, “Mobility personas for Singapore,” Aug. 2019.
 
@misc{MPCDAM2019,
title={Mobility Personas for {Singapore}},
author={Kong, Penny and Gill, Aneel and Cornet, Henriette and Frenkler, Fritz},
booktitle={Mobility Personas Cards},
publisher={TUMCREATE Ltd.},
year={2019},
month=aug,
location={Singapore},
}
[2]S. Stadler, H. Cornet, P. Kong, and F. Frenkler, “How can communication between autonomous vehicles & humans be improved by using virtual reality? A safe, cost- and time-efficient method for the validation of human machine interaction concepts in the context of public transportation in Singapore,” in Proceedings of the Asia Design Engineering Workshop (A-DEWS 2017), Seoul, Korea, Dec. 2017.
 
@inproceedings{ADEWSDAM2017,
title={How Can Communication Between Autonomous Vehicles \& Humans be Improved by Using Virtual Reality? {A} Safe, Cost- and Time-efficient Method for the Validation of Human Machine Interaction Concepts in the Context of Public Transportation in {Singapore}},
author={Stadler, Sebastian and Cornet, Henriette and Kong, Penny and Frenkler, Fritz},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Asia Design Engineering Workshop (A-DEWS 2017)},
year={2017},
month=dec,
location={Seoul, Korea},
}
[1]H. Cornet, S. Stadler, G. Marinkovic, R. Gujarathi, A. Nayan, R. Khoo, and F. Frenkler, “The ultimate public transport system,” Video for the International «Le Monde» Smart Cities Innovation Awards 2017, Jun. 2017.
 
@misc{DAMvideo1,
author={Cornet, Henriette and Stadler, Sebastian and Marinkovic, Goran and Gujarathi, Rahul and Nayan, Ashish and Khoo, Raymond and Frenkler, Fritz},
title={The Ultimate Public Transport System},
howpublished={Video for the International {\guillemotleft}Le Monde{\guillemotright} Smart Cities Innovation Awards 2017},
month=jun,
year={2017},
}

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