A Research Platform for Singapore

Bus Stop Design for Autonomous Public Transport


This project presents a design concept of future bus stops for autonomous public transport in Singapore. The concept facilitates operation of two systems: the regular bus transit and the novel DART system. Research was conducted to unveil specific user needs when it comes to bus stop design and autonomous public transport. A design concept consisting of (i) a modular stop design to service different future transport modes in Singapore and (ii) a mobile application to navigate in the public transport with the option of using autonomous public transport on-demand was developed.


This project adopted novel research methodologies of user participation. Besides interviews and workshops with persons with disabilities, user journey maps, and on-site investigations, graffiti walls were utilised to identify needs, demands, and opinions of public transport users. An open canvas on which participants could leave comments and sketches to open questions was provided, directly in the context of use  ΜΆ  a bus stop.


A user undertaking the graffiti walls survey

The user research revealed the need for better information and interaction between the transport system and passengers, especially when public transport vehicles are operating driverless and on-demand. To accomplish these needs, the developed concept was designed to include interactive service terminals.

Elements of the modular bus stop

Interactive service terminal



Sabrina Bartholl

Vijayalakshmi Balasankar

Clare Poh Jia Hui

Niklas Forchhammer


Contact person: Niklas.Forchhammer@tum-create.edu.sg