A Research Platform for Singapore

Rapid Road Transport

Overview

The Rapid Road Transport (RRT) group is developing a new a Semi-Rapid Transit (SRT) concept as a major milestone in achieving the mission and vision of TUMCREATE. The Semi-Rapid Transit concept serves the passenger capacity segment between the MRT and the conventional bus system, and complement the current modes of public transport. The new modes consist of different vehicle technologies and operational concepts with state-of-the-art vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication, and recent advances in electromobility. To achieve this aim, three main objectives have been defined as illustrated in Figure 1:

Figure 1: Rapid Road Transport (RRT)


RRT1: Definition of the SRT layer and integration into the overall network of Singapore. The objective is to define the features and requirements of the proposed public transport concepts and their integration into the existing public transport network for Singapore and other cities. 

RRT2: Technologies for holistic traffic management and control. The objective is to define innovative vehicle and operational approaches for the proposed public transport concepts.

RRT3: Electrified public transport system – from concept to infrastructure. The objective is to identify the optimal road and energy infrastructure for the proposed public transport concepts for their implementation in Singapore and other cities.

Research

RRT-1 - Definition of the SRT layer and integration in the overall network of Singapore.

We previously developed a highly calibrated public transport demand and supply model for Singapore. Taking advantage of smart transit card data, which consists of hundreds of millions of trip.

records of everyday public transport usage, this model reconstructs the island wide transport system in an integrated manner. We are using this model as a strategic tool for Semi-Rapid Transit planning and evaluation.

RRT-1 has four main research objectives.

  • Set the requirements for the overall Semi-Rapid Transit system and co-ordinate the SRT-specific work across research areas. This task ensures that at the end of the project, the SRT layer will be a unified transport product with distinct characteristics including the innovation of all six research areas.
  • Search for potential corridors in Singapore to implement Semi-Rapid Transit services, considering physical and operational characteristics of the current public transport modes.
  • Simulate the impact of implementing Semi-Rapid Transit layer into the proposed corridors using our public transport model. By employing various performance indicators, future scenarios can be examined in detail.
  • Evaluate the enhanced public transport network by applying different future demand projections. Improve the model so it can be applied to other cities around the world, serving as a guideline for improving public transport networks.

 

Figure 2: Macroscopic public transport model for Singapore


RRT-2 - Technologies for a holistic traffic management and control

The operation of Semi-Rapid Transit in the network requires innovative traffic operation solutions. For example, traffic signal priority could help to guarantee the fast and smooth travelling of SRT and other public transport modes in the network. Additionally, facing conflict between public transport and other modes, the operational needs from all transport models need to be balanced. Therefore, one major part of the research will focus on technologies for a holistic framework for traffic management and control (Figure 3) to cope with the multi-modal traffic system with fluctuating demand (Figure 4) in Singapore. It aims to create a coherent operational architecture, providing novel and integrated solutions that utilise the transport system to its fullest potential. Public transport operation (including public transport acceleration, prioritisation, incident management, etc.) in mixed traffic is one of the major challenges.

This research will cover the traffic management and control from short term to long term, from network and corridor level to intersection level, and in normal operation and sudden abnormal traffic changes. The first task is to carry out a pro-active traffic management measure to optimise the traffic operation of the multi-modal transport system at a strategic level, with regard to public transport prioritisation and the utilisation of existing infrastructure. The second task “Real-time Urban Traffic Control” is to create corresponding traffic infrastructure management methods and advanced driving advice to prioritise the proposed multi-modal transport operations. In the case of abnormal sudden traffic changes, the third task, traveller-centric incident management, will address the traffic management with the inclusion of individual passenger’s needs for information in case of incidents and line disruptions. Additionally, the traffic data fusion will be addressed in the fourth task, service quality monitoring, to assist stakeholders in their tactical decision making.

 

 

Figure 3: Advanced multi-modal traffic operation

 

Figure 4: Urban traffic control system


RRT-3 - Electrified public transport system – from concept to infrastructure.

We have previously developed an innovative pavement system called Precast Ultra-thin Whitetopping (PUTW) which is customised for Singapore’s local conditions. The PUTW is a cost effective, quick-to-construct and durable pavement system that accommodates power supply modules to allow wireless energy transfer to electric vehicles when they are above the pavement. PUTW is also a solution for the maintenance of current road infrastructure at heavy traffic junctions in Singapore. Figures 5 shows the pavement slab being tested in the lab and an example of pavement installation at a construction site. This new pavement concept is currently being developed further, tested, and extended by the RRT-3 team. 


RRT-3 has three main research objectives.

  • Overcome technical and economic constraints of the existing road infrastructure to adopt new electric public transport.
  • Provide an in-service charging infrastructure for the new electric public transport system. This task studies the optimal locations for the charging infrastructure and charging strategies for selected corridors. The research also focuses on modifying the previously developed electrified roadways to adopt the new electric public transport modes with respect to safety (traffic and electrical safety), maintainability, availability, and reliability requirements.
  • Investigate the potential to include innovative add-on features into current road infrastructure to improve cities’ liveability. Some examples are energy harvesting, traffic noise reduction and controlling air pollution through the road surface.

 

Figure 5: Slab testing and installation

 

Publications

[1]N. NguyenDinh, Precast ultra-thin whitetopping (PUTW) in singapore and its application for electrified roadways. Ser. Mitteilungen des Prüfamtes für Verkehrswegebau der Technischen Universität München. Technische Universität München, 2016, ISSN: 0341-5538.
 
@book{nguyendinh_precast_20161RRT,
title={Precast Ultra-Thin Whitetopping ({PUTW}) in Singapore and Its Application for Electrified Roadways},
url={https://books.google.com.sg/books?id
series={Mitteilungen des Pr{\"u}famtes f{\"u}r Verkehrswegebau der Technischen Universit{\"a}t M{\"u}nchen},
publisher={Techn\-ische Uni\-ver\-si\-t{\"a}t M{\"u}n\-chen},
author={NguyenDinh, Nen},
issn={0341-5538},
year={2016}
}
[2]J. Zhang, D. Z. Wang, and M. Meng, “Optimization of bus stop spacing for on-demand public bus service,” in Proceedings of The Transportation Research Board (TRB) 96th Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA, 2017, [Online]. Available: http://amonline.trb.org/63532-trb-1.3393340/t016-1.3406175/665-1.3406300/17-01459-1.3406327/17-01459-1.3406328.
 
@inproceedings{zhang_optimization_2017RRT,
location={Washington D.C., USA},
title={Optimization of bus stop spacing for on-demand public bus service},
url={http://amonline.trb.org/63532-trb-1.3393340/t016-1.3406175/665-1.3406300/17-01459-1.3406327/17-01459-1.3406328},
eventtitle={The Transportation Research Board (TRB) 96th Annual Meeting},
booktitle={Proceedings of The Transportation Research Board (TRB) 96th Annual Meeting},
author={Zhang, Jie and Wang, David Zhiwei and Meng, Meng},
year={2017}
}
[3]X. Liu, Y. Yang, M. Meng, and A. Rau, “The impact of different bus stop designs on bus operating time components,” Journal of Public Transportation, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 104–118, 2017, DOI: 10.5038/2375-0901.20.1.6.
 
@article{liu_impact_nodateRRT,
title={The impact of different bus stop designs on bus operating time components},
volume={20},
doi={10.5038/2375-0901.20.1.6},
pages={104--118},
number={1},
year={2017},
journal={Journal of Public Transportation},
author={Liu, Xaodong and Yang, Yao and Meng, Meng and Rau, Andreas}
}
[4]M. Meng, A. Rau, and H. Mahardhika, “Travel time perception in a multimodal public transport trip,” in Proceedings of The Transportation Research Board (TRB) 96th Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA, 2017, [Online]. Available: https://trid.trb.org/view/1438567.
 
@inproceedings{meng_travel_2017RRT,
location={Washington D.C., USA},
title={Travel time perception in a multimodal public transport trip},
url={https://trid.trb.org/view/1438567},
eventtitle={Transportation Research Board (TRB) 96th Annual Meeting},
booktitle={Proceedings of The Transportation Research Board (TRB) 96th Annual Meeting},
author={Meng, Meng and Rau, Andreas and Mahardhika, Hita},
year={2017}
}
[5]A. A. Bawono, N. NguyenDinh, and B. Lechner, “Evaluation of highway pavement skid resistance performance made of engineered cementitious composite (ECC),” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields (BCRRA 2017), Greece, 2017, ISBN: 978-1-138-29595-7, [Online]. Available: https://www.crcpress.com/Bearing-Capacity-of-Roads-Railways-and-Airfields-Proceedings-of-the-10th/Loizos-Al-Qadi-Scarpas/p/book/9781138295957.
 
@inproceedings{bawono_evaluation_2017RRT,
location={Greece},
title={Evaluation of highway pavement skid resistance performance made of Engineered Cementitious Composite ({ECC})},
isbn={978-1-138-29595-7},
url={https://www.crcpress.com/Bearing-Capacity-of-Roads-Railways-and-Airfields-Proceedings-of-the-10th/Loizos-Al-Qadi-Scarpas/p/book/9781138295957},
eventtitle={10th International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields (BCRRA 2017)},
booktitle={Proceedings of 10th International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields (BCRRA 2017)},
author={Bawono, Ali Aryo and NguyenDinh, Nen and Lechner, Bernhard},
year={2017}
}
[6]Z. Ul-Abedin, A. Rau, F. Busch, and D. Z. Wang, “A hierarchical public transit network design method for large networks,” in Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 97th Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA, Jan. 2018, [Online]. Available: https://trid.trb.org/view/1495383.
 
@inproceedings{ulabedin_hierarchical_2018RRT,
location={Washington D.C., USA},
title={A hierarchical public transit network design method for large networks},
url={https://trid.trb.org/view/1495383},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 97th Annual Meeting},
author={Ul-Abedin, Zain and Rau, Andreas and Busch, Fritz and Wang, David Zhiwei},
year={2018},
month=jan,
}
[7]A. A. Bawono, F. I. Alhaz, and B. Lechner, “The methodology of asphalt pavement analysis with 3D FEM model resulting by the actual tire pavement contact stresses which measured with pressure mapping system device (Tekscan I-Scan),” in Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 97th Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA, Jan. 2018, [Online]. Available: https://trid.trb.org/view/1495279.
 
@inproceedings{bawono_methodology_2018RRT,
location={Washington D.C., USA},
title={The methodology of asphalt pavement analysis with {3D} {FEM} model resulting by the actual tire pavement contact stresses which measured with pressure mapping system device ({Tekscan} {I-Scan})},
url={https://trid.trb.org/view/1495279},
eventtitle={Transportation Research Board (TRB) 97th Annual Meeting},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 97th Annual Meeting},
author={Bawono, Ali Aryo and Alhaz, Fiddin Ichwanul and Lechner, Bernhard},
year={2018},
month=jan,
}
[8]J. So, S. Krause, J. Kaths, L. Tian, and Y. J. Moon, “A proactive emergency vehicle control strategy based on automated driving technologies,” in Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 97th Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA, Jan. 2018, [Online]. Available: https://trid.trb.org/view/1495379.
 
@inproceedings{Liangyuan_proactive_2018RRT,
location={Washington D.C., USA},
title={A Proactive Emergency Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Automated Driving Technologies},
url={https://trid.trb.org/view/1495379},
eventtitle={Transportation Research Board (TRB) 97th Annual Meeting},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 97th Annual Meeting},
author={So, Jaehyun and Krause, Sabine and Kaths, Jakob and Tian, Liangyuan and Moon, Young Jun},
year={2018},
month=jan,
}
[9]N. NguyenDinh, A. A. Bawono, E. H. Yang, and B. Lechner, “Using corundum to improve skid resistance of pavement made of engineered cementitious composite,” in Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 97th Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA, Jan. 2018, [Online]. Available: https://trid.trb.org/view/1494852.
 
@inproceedings{nguyendinh_using_2018RRT,
location={Washington D.C., USA},
title={Using corundum to improve skid resistance of pavement made of engineered cementitious composite},
url={https://trid.trb.org/view/1494852},
eventtitle={Transportation Research Board (TRB) 97th Annual Meeting},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 97th Annual Meeting},
author={NguyenDinh, Nen and Bawono, Ali Aryo and Yang, En-Hua and Lechner, Bernhard},
year={2018},
month=jan,
}
[10]Z. Ul-Abedin, A. Rau, F. Busch, and D. Z. Wang, “Comparison between public transport network design methodologies using solution quality evaluation,” ASCE's Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part A: Systems, Feb. 2018, ISSN: 2473-2907.
 
@article{ulabedin_comparison_2018RRT,
title={Comparison Between Public Transport Network Design Methodologies Using Solution Quality Evaluation},
issn={2473-2907},
journal={ASCE's Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part A: Systems},
author={Ul-Abedin, Zain and Rau, Andreas and Busch, Fritz and Wang, David Zhiwei},
year={2018},
month=feb,
}
[11]X. Liu, Y. Zhou, and A. Rau, “Smart card data-centric replication of the multi-modal public transport system in Singapore,” Journal of Transport Geography, Mar. 2018, DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2018.02.004.
 
@article{liu_smart_2018RRT,
title={Smart card data-centric replication of the multi-modal public transport system in {Singapore}},
doi={10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2018.02.004},
journal={Journal of Transport Geography},
author={Liu, Xiaodong and Zhou, Yuan and Rau, Andreas},
year={2018},
month=mar,
}
[12]M. Meng, A. Rau, and H. Mahardhika, “Public transport travel time perception: effects of socioeconomic characteristics, trip characteristics and facility usage,” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol. 114, pp. 24–37, Aug. 2018, DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2018.01.015.
 
@article{meng_public_2018RRT,
title={Public transport travel time perception: effects of socioeconomic characteristics, trip characteristics and facility usage},
doi={10.1016/j.tra.2018.01.015},
journal={Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice},
publisher={Elsevier},
author={Meng, Meng and Rau, Andreas and Mahardhika, Hita},
year={2018},
month=aug,
volume={114},
pages={24--37},
}
[13]T. Liu, A. Ceder, and A. Rau, “Deployment planning of single-line modular-vehicle semi-rapid transit system,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Advanced Systems in Public Transport (CASPT 2018), Brisbane, Australia, 2018, in press.
 
@inproceedings{liu_deployment_2018RRT,
location={Brisbane, Australia},
title={Deployment Planning of Single-Line Modular-Vehicle Semi-Rapid Transit System},
eventtitle={14th International Conference on Advanced Systems in Public Transport (CASPT2018)},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Advanced Systems in Public Transport (CASPT 2018)},
author={Liu, Tao and Ceder, Avishai and Rau, Andreas},
year={2018},
}

Other output

[14]Z. Ul-Abedin and A. Rau, “A genetic algorithm based robust public transport network design model,” in Proceedings of the 5th Symposium arranged by the European Association for Research in Transportation (hEART), Delft, Netherlands, 2016.
 
@inproceedings{ulabedin_genetic_2016RRT,
location={Delft, Netherlands},
title={A genetic algorithm based robust public transport network design model},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 5th Symposium arranged by the European Association for Research in Transportation (hEART)},
author={Ul-Abedin, Zain and Rau, Andreas},
year={2016},
}
[15]N. NguyenDinh, T. Nguyen, E. H. Yang, and B. Lechner, “Life cycle cost assessment of engineered cementitious composite (ECC) precast pavement in Singapore,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Concrete Pavements, San Antonio, USA, 2016.
 
@inproceedings{nguyendinh_life_2016RRT,
location={San Antonio, USA},
title={Life cycle cost assessment of engineered cementitious composite ({ECC}) precast pavement in {Singapore}},
eventtitle={11th International Conference on Concrete Pavements},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Concrete Pavements},
author={NguyenDinh, Nen and Nguyen, Teron and Yang, En-Hua and Lechner, Bernhard},
year={2016},
}
[16]X. Liu, A. Rau, and F. Busch, “Intersections' level of service evaluation using smart card data in Singapore,” in Proceedings of ITS World Congress 2016, Melbourne, Australian, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.itsworldcongress2016.com/pro.
 
@inproceedings{liu_intersections_2016RRT,
location={Melbourne, Australian},
title={Intersections' level of service evaluation using smart card data in {Singapore}},
url={http://www.itsworldcongress2016.com/pro},
eventtitle={ITS World Congress 2016},
booktitle={Proceedings of ITS World Congress 2016},
author={Liu, Xiaodong and Rau, Andreas and Busch, Fritz},
year={2016},
}
[17]G. M. Michalski, Y. Zhou, X. Liu, and A. Rau, “Bus system modelling using smart card data in Singapore,” in Proceedings of ITS World Congress 2016, Melbourne, Australia, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.itsworldcongress2016.com/pro.
 
@inproceedings{michalski_bus_2016RRT,
location={Melbourne, Australia},
title={Bus system modelling using smart card data in {Singapore}},
url={http://www.itsworldcongress2016.com/pro},
eventtitle={ITS World Congress 2016},
booktitle={Proceedings of ITS World Congress 2016},
author={Michalski, Georg-Maximilian and Zhou, Yuan and Liu, Xiaodong and Rau, Andreas},
year={2016},
}
[18]T. Nguyen, N. NguyenDinh, and B. Lechner, “Traffic microsimulation of roadwork in Singapore, a case study,” in Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Transport Infrastructure with Sustainable Development, DaNang, Vietnam, Sep. 2016, ISBN: 978-604-82-1809-6.
 
@inproceedings{nguyen_trac_2016RRT,
location={DaNang, Vietnam},
title={Traffic microsimulation of roadwork in {Singapore}, a case study},
isbn={978-604-82-1809-6},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Transport Infrastructure with Sustainable Development},
author={Nguyen, Teron and NguyenDinh, Nen and Lechner, Bernhard},
year={2016},
month=sep,
}
[19]B. Du, Y. Zhou, and A. Rau, “Imputation of passengers' trip activities based on smart card data,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Transport Systems in Theory and Practice, Munich, Germany, Jul. 2017.
 
@inproceedings{du_imputation_2017RRT,
location={Munich, Germany},
title={Imputation of passengers' trip activities based on smart card data},
booktitle={Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Transport Systems in Theory and Practice},
author={Du, Bo and Zhou, Yuan and Rau, Andreas},
year={2017},
month=jul,
}
[20]L. Tian, J. So, I. Park, K. Choi, and Y. J. Moon, “A vehicle priority control based on automated driving technology and traffic signal controls,” in Proceedings of ITS World Congress 2017, Montreal, Canada, Oct. 2017, [Online]. Available: http://www.itsworldcongress2017.org/program.
 
@inproceedings{tian_vehicle_2017RRT,
location={Montreal, Canada},
title={A Vehicle Priority Control Based on Automated Driving Technology and Traffic Signal Controls},
url={http://www.itsworldcongress2017.org/program},
eventtitle={ITS World Congress 2017},
booktitle={Proceedings of ITS World Congress 2017},
author={Tian, Liangyuan and So, Jaehyun and Park, I and Choi, Keechoo and Moon, Young-Jun},
year={2017},
month=oct,
}
[21]A. Rau, A. Nayan, and Y. Zhou, “Route planning methodology for an autonomous modular public transit system,” in Proceedings of The 26th Transport Science Day, Dresden, Germany, Mar. 2018.
 
@inproceedings{rau_route_2018RRT,
location={Dresden, Germany},
title={Route Planning Methodology for an Autonomous Modular Public Transit System},
eventtitle={The 26th Transport Science Day},
booktitle={Proceedings of The 26th Transport Science Day},
author={Rau, Andreas and Nayan, Ashish and Zhou, Yuan},
year={2018},
month=mar,
}
[22]N. NguyenDinh, A. A. Bawono, E. H. Yang, J. Qiu, and B. Lechner, “Preparations for the field trial of preacast ultra-thin whitetopping (PUTW) in Singapore,” in Proceedings of the 9th International DUT-Workshop on Research and Innovations for Design of Sustainable and Durable Concrete Pavements, Potsdam, Germany, Jun. 2018.
 
@inproceedings{nguyendinh_preparations_2018RRT,
location={Potsdam, Germany},
title={Preparations for the field trial of Preacast Ultra-Thin Whitetopping ({PUTW}) in {Singapore}},
eventtitle={9th International DUT-Workshop on Research and Innovations for Design of Sustainable and Durable Concrete Pavements},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 9th International DUT-Workshop on Research and Innovations for Design of Sustainable and Durable Concrete Pavements},
author={NguyenDinh, Nen and Bawono, Ali Aryo and Yang, En-Hua and Qiu, Jishen and Lechner, Bernhard},
year={2018},
month=jun,
}
[23]A. Rau, A. Nayan, L. Tian, T. Liu, Y. Zhou, and X. Liu, “Design of a dynamic autonomous road transit system,” in Proceedings of the 25th ITS World Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, Sep. 2018, in press.
 
@inproceedings{Rau_design_2018RRT,
location={Copenhagen, Denmark},
title={Design of a Dynamic Autonomous Road Transit System},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 25th ITS World Congress},
author={Rau, Andreas and Nayan, Ashish and Tian, Liangyuan and Liu, Tao and Zhou, Yuan and Liu, Xiaodong},
year={2018},
month=sep,
}

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